Sample Exam Questions for Chapter 12

Multiple Choice Questions

1. The form of social organization typical of hunter-gatherers is the ____________, whereas horticulture and pastoralism are usually associated with the form of social organization called the ____________.

a. tribe / chiefdom
b. tribe / state
c. tribe / band
d. band / chiefdom
e. band / tribe

2. A cross-cultural comparison of systems of political organization reveals that

a. many women who hold high office do so by virtue of their relationship to men
b. many women in positions of leadership adopt characteristics of temperament that are usually considered masculine.
c. in many societies, women have as much political power as men.
d. women may play an important role in political decisions even when they are not visible public leaders.
e. all but c

3. The functions of law include

a. the definition of proper behavior in particular circumstances so that everyone is clear about their rights and duties
b. protecting the wealthy from the poor.
c. redefining what is proper behavior when situations change.
d. allocating authority to use coercion to enforce sanctions.
e. all but b

4. An exploitative worldview is more likely to exist in which of the following technologies?

a. food foraging
b. horticulture
c. pastoralism
d. intensive agriculture
e. all of the above except a

5. Power based on force does not usually last very long; to be effective, it must be considered

a. legitimate
b. mediated
c. negotiated
d. subject to sanctions
e. inevitable

6. An important pioneer in the anthropological study of law was

a. A. L. Kroeber
b. George Peter Murdock
c. John Wesley Powell
d. E. Adamson Hoebel
e. Peggy Reeves Sanday

Practice Essay

Why has the state-type system expanded to encompass most of the globe today? Explore how band, tribe, and chiefdom organizations might persist within a world order based primarily on states.


Sample Exam Questions for Chapter 13

Multiple Choice Practice Questions

1. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be extensively involved in religious beliefs and activities?

a. single women with 10 children living below the poverty line, who dropped out of school at age 14.
b. members of food-foraging societies with limited scientific knowledge
c. peasants in a feudal society
d. members of lower classes in an urban-industrial society
e. wealthy members of urban-industrial societies with advanced scientific knowledge

2. Belief in a supreme being who controls the universe is usually associated with

a. bands
b. tribes.
c. chiefdoms.
d. states.
e. multinational corporations.

3. In acting as a healer, the shaman

a. accurately diagnoses medical problems.
b. may improve the patient's state of mind, which aids in recovery.
c. may be coping with his or her own problems by becoming intensely involved with the problems of others.
d. provides reassurance to the community through an elaborate drama that may involve trickery.
e. all but a

4. Religion, magic, and witchcraft are all SIMILAR in which of the following ways?

a. They all disappear once modern education and scientific training expand.
b. They all share the common goal of improving social relationships within a community.
c. They are all associated with morose nonconformists who try to destroy society.
d. They provide explanations of events and are mechanisms of social control.
e. They are all morally neutral.

5. Which of the following illustrates the psychological functions of religion?

a. Among the Holy Ghost People of the United States, handling snakes and drinking strychnine is a common feature of their worship; one explanation of this behavior is that by confronting the possibility of death, they achieve a sense of awe and transcendence.
b. An Islamic judge who orders the hand of a thief cut off can sleep soundly at night because he thinks of himself as merely the agent of divinely inspired justice.
c. The Tewa Indian origin myth provides every Tewa with a sense of place in an orderly universe.
d. A person raised in the Catholic religion feels tremendous guilt when she/he commits a wrong.
e. all but d

6. Which of the following statements about revitalization movements in INCORRECT?

a. The purpose of revitalization movements is to reform society.
b. Revitalization movements always fail because they require too much change to be tolerated.
c. All known major religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, began as revitalization movements.
d. Revitalization movements may be completely unrealistic.
e. Revitalization movements may be adaptive and give rise to long-lasting religions.

7. Which of the following statements about revitalization movements is INCORRECT?

a. The purpose of revitalization movements is to reform society.
b. Revitalization movements always fail because they require too much change to be tolerated.
c. All known major religions, including Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, began as revitalization movements.
d. Revitalization movements may be completely unrealistic.
e. Revitalization movements may be adaptive and give rise to long-lasting religions.

Practice Essay

Bronislaw Malinowski, in his classic essay Magic, Science, and Religion, claimed that each of these was a viable mode of cognition and that most societies exhibit all of them in variable proportions. In what ways does magical thinking persist in contemporary North America? Is it likely to persist into the future?


Sample Exam Questions for Chapter 14

Multiple Choice Practice Questions

1. Whether useful or non-useful, all art is an expression of

a. the innate need to be impractical.
b. a fundamental human capacity for religious expression.
c. state-level societies that can afford specialists.
d. political domination of minorities by élites.
e. the symbolic representation of form and the expression of feeling that constitute creativity.

2. Anthropologists prefer to use the term "verbal arts" rather than the term "folklore" because the term

a. "folklore" is used only by linguists; the term "verbal arts" is used only by anthropologists.
b. "verbal arts" sounds more sophisticated.
c. "verbal arts" is more scientific.
d. "folklore" implies lack of sophistication and is a condescending term to use.
e. "folklore" refers only to fairy tales.

3. Your text describes a type of narrative found in many cultures in which a peasant father and his son, while traveling with their beast of burden, meet a number of people who criticize them. What is the motif?

a. The "motif" refers to the psychological motives of the characters in a story, in this case the desire of the son to do better than his father
b. "Motif" means the historical background to the story, in this case the history of exploitation of the peasantry.
c. The "motif" refers to the story situation, in this case a father and son trying to please everyone.
d. "Motif" means the physical environment in which the story occurs, in this case the yam gardens of Ghana.
e. The "motif" refers to the economic background, in this case feudalism.

4. During the Washington Peace March in the 60s, thousands of people sang the song "We Shall Overcome." This song expressed a feeling of common purpose to counteract repression and to reform society. It created a sense of unity among diverse members of the crowd. This example illustrates the ___________ of m music.

a. social functions
b. geographical distribution
c. tonality
d. mythological features
e. polyrhythms

5. Amongst the Kalahari groups of the 1950s and 1960s, about half the men and a third of the women were

a. rock artists.
b. shaman.
c. hunters.
d. gatherers.
e. chiefs.

Practice Essay

Many famous biographies or novels about artists in the West stress the individual creativity of the artist (for example, James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man). Artists are portrayed as people who have the vision to rise above and beyond the social and cultural conditions into which they were born, sometimes even crossing the boundaries of normality as typically defined by society. How is this vision of the artist different from the conception of artists held by non-Western societies?


Sample Exam Questions for Chapter 15

Multiple Choice Practice Questions

1. In New England, the culture of English speakers replaced the various cultures of Native Americans living along the coast. Your text says that this occurred because

a. English-speaking culture was superior to Native American culture.
b. Native American culture was superior to English-speaking culture.
c. it is inevitable that English speakers will replace other cultures that they encounter.
d. a combination of accidental factors contributed to the success of English speakers in establishing colonies along coastal New England.
e. the success of English speakers was only a temporary setback for the progressive development of Native American culture.

2. Copernicus's discovery that the earth orbits the sun rather than vice versa

a. was a primary innovation that met the cultural goals and needs of his time.
b. was a primary innovation that was out of step with the needs, values, and goals of the time.
c. was a secondary innovation that put into application the discovery by Ptolemy that heavenly bodies moved on crystalline spheres around the earth.
d. was a secondary innovation that was deliberately developed by Copernicus to destroy the Polish Church.
e. resulted from diffusion of ideas from India.

3. In acculturation, subordinate groups will often incorporate new cultural elements into their own culture, creating a blend of old and new; a reinterpretation of new cultural elements to fit them with already existing traditions is called

a. syncretism.
b. innovation.
c. diffusion.
d. integrative mechanism.
e. modernization.

4. A deliberate attempt by members of society to construct a more satisfying culture may be called

a. a secondary innovation.
b. a revitalization movement.
d. syncretism.
e. a primary innovation.

5. The term "modernization"

a. is a relativistic rather than ethnocentric concept.
b. refers to the process of cultural and socioeconomic change whereby societies acquire the characteristics of industrialized societies.
c. refers to a global and all-encompassing process whereby modern cities gradually deteriorate.
d. can be used to show that all societies go through the same stages of evolutionary development, culminating in the urban-industrial state.
e. is not used by anthropologists.

6. As modernization occurs, which of the following changes are likely to follow?

a. Literacy increases.
b. Religion decreases.
c. Kinship plays a less significant role
d. Social mobility increases.
e. all of the above

7. The most common pattern characterizing violence against indigenous people in Brazil is/are

a. racism
b. impunity (guilty party gets away with crime).
c. massacres.
d. illegal detention
e. police brutality

Practice Essay

In what ways can the rising tide of Islamic fundamentalism in the Middle East and other areas of the world be seen as a revitalization movement? Are there other terms from the chapter that could apply to this phenomenon? What might anthropology contribute to our understanding of such movements?